Tuesday, October 30, 2007

Module 10 - Terrain Analysis


Elevation and terrain variables are important at some point in almost everone's life. Elevation and slope determines flood zones and watershed boundaries as well as hydrologic networks. Terrain is also an integral part of determining transportation networks and site suitability for a variety of applications.

  1. Describe how terrain data is used to enhance spatial analyses.

  2. Describe how terrain data used in digital format is advantageous to spatial analyses using terrain data in non-spatial formats.

  3. Define slope and discuss the difference between measuring slope in degrees and percentages.

  4. Define aspect.

  5. List several applications or studies where slope and aspect terrain variables might be useful.

  6. Discuss some hydologic functions avalilable throught terrain data.

  7. Describe a viewshed.

  8. Describe a shaded relief map.


  • terrain analysis

  • terrain data

  • slope

  • aspect

  • flow length

  • upslople length

  • profile curvature

  • plan curvature

  • visibility

  • contours

  • pits or sinks

  • watershed

  • drainage network

  • viewshed

  • shaded relief

  • hillshade


LIDAR - Light Detection and Ranging - in NC has been used to develop high resolution DEMs of WNC. These DEM's are 20 foot resolution as opposed to the old USGS DEM's that started at 30m resolution and got better at 20m resolution for areas with significant elevation change. From the DEM's we can generate hillshade, slope, aspect, contours, and visibility grids.

This is done in ArcGIS using the Spatial Analyst or 3D Analyst extensions through the surface analysis tools.

Bolstad: GIS Fundamentals. Chapter 11 - Terrain Analysis


Terrain Analysis



Tuesday, October 23, 2007

Module 9 - Raster Analyses


Raster data is exceptional at modeling real-world phenomenon and creating visualizations of these models. The types of analysis we prepare and conduct with raster data works in a different environment with different commands. While some concepts like overlay are still very relevant, they act differently when applied to raster data. This module will introduce us to many of these concepts.

  1. Define raster analyses
  2. Discuss some reasons we may emply raster data analyses as opposed to other types of spatial data analyses
  3. Categorize raster analyses intoLocal, Neighborhood and Global functions
  4. Describe logical operations
  5. Discuss raster reclassification. Why and how is it done?
  6. Describe conditional functions
  7. Describe several neighborhood functions used in raster analyses.
  8. Discuss the concept of a moving window
  9. Define kernel
  10. Describe cost surfaces
  • raster analyses
  • map algebra
  • unary
  • binary
  • local functions
  • neighborhood functions
  • global functions
  • logical funtions
  • resolution
  • raster reclassification
  • overlay
  • moving window
  • kernel
  • cost surfaces

GIS Fundamentals - Chapter 10 - Raster Analyses

POWERPOINT SUPPLEMENT (refresh page if file does not download)


refresh the pages if you get the 'page cannot be displayed'

Thursday, October 11, 2007

Module 8 - Basic Spatial Analysis



  1. Define spatial analyses
  2. Discuss the flow of input, operations and output when performing spatial analyses
  3. Define spatial scope and list 3 common ways spatial scope is characterized.
  4. Describe selection operations.
  5. Describe set algebra
  6. Describe Boolean algebra
  7. List and describe several commonly used spatial selection operations
  8. Define classification
  9. Define dissolve. Why might dissolve be used?
  10. Describe several proximity functions discussed in the book. Specifically describe all aspects of buffering
  11. Discuss the overlay operations described in the book.
  • spatial data analysis
  • spatial operations or spatial functions
  • spatial scope
  • local operations
  • neighborhood operations
  • global operations
  • selections operations
  • on-screen query
  • set algebra
  • Boolean algebra
  • adjacency
  • containment
  • classification
  • reclassification or recoding
  • binary classification
  • equal-interval classification
  • equal-area classification
  • natural-breaks classification
  • dissolve
  • proximity functions
  • buffering
  • fixed distance buffering
  • compound buffering
  • nested or multi-ring buffering
  • variable distance buffering
  • overlay operations
  • clip
  • intersect
  • union

GIS Fundamentals - Chapter 9 - Basic Spatial Analysis - GET THE POWERPOINT SUPPLEMENT HERE - refresh page if it does not download


Getting to Know ArcGIS - Chapter - Chapter 10 Selecting Features by Location
Getting to Know ArcGIS - Chapter - Chapter 11 Preparing Data for Analysis
Getting to Know ArcGIS - Chapter - Chapter 12 Analyzing Spatial Data <== we probably won't get to this one!

Monday, October 8, 2007

Test 2 Study Guide

The test will cover chapters 4,6,7, and 8 in Bolstad and concepts from labwork (no hands on)

This document is to be used as a “guide” to studying for the test. Please refer to the book, review questions, lectures, and notes. Understand the overall concepts that these questions address. To best study for this test, fill out all the answers in the document and then use them to study. The test may be short answers, multiple choices, true/false and fill in the blank. The test will be designed to be completed in about 1 hour.

Get the study guide here. Refresh page if you are not taken to the download page.

Thanks to Greg Dobson for most of this study guide. Slightly modified by me.

Friday, October 5, 2007

Module 7 - Attribute Data and Tables


  1. Describe the difference between a database and a database management system
  2. Describe the basic database components and characteristics
  3. Distinguish between physical, logical and conceptual database structures
  4. Compare and contrast non-relational and relational databases
  5. Perform queries based on attribute information
  6. Discuss the normal forms in database design
  7. Describe object-relational data models
  8. Discuss current and future trends in spatial DBMS


Lecture - GIS Fundamentals

  • Database Management System (DBMS)
  • data independence
  • multiple user views
  • centralized control and maintenance
  • data items or attributes
  • entity
  • instance
  • record
  • row
  • file
  • relational table
  • server
  • clients
  • multi-tiered architecture
  • transaction manager
  • applications server
  • schema
  • entity-relationship diagram
  • conceptual database design
  • logical database design
  • physical design
  • parent
  • children
  • relations
  • relational algebra
  • restrict
  • project
  • union
  • intersection
  • difference
  • product
  • join
  • divide
  • table query
  • AND
  • OR
  • NOT
  • normal forms
  • primary key


    GIS Fundamentals - Chapter 8 - Attribute Data and Tables - GET THE POWERPOINT SUPPLEMENT HERE - refresh page if it does not download

    Read the chapter but study the powerpoint for the test


    7A) Getting to Know ArcGIS - Chapter 8 - Querying Data
    7B) Getting to Know ArcGIS - Chapter 9 - Joining and relating tables