Friday, September 28, 2007

Module 6 - Aerial and Satellite Images - Remote Sensing


  1. Describe several positive attributes of remotely-sensed images as data sources.
  2. Describe the electromagnetic energy spectrum and it's principle wavelength regions.
  3. Define photogrammetry.
  4. Discuss passive versus active remote-sensing systems
  5. Discuss large and small format scanners in relation to aerial photography. Advantages and disadvantages/
  6. List the basic components of a camera used for taking aerial photographs
  7. List the sources of geometric distortion in aerial photographs. Which are minor sources and which are minor? Why?
  8. Describe photointerpetation
  9. Georeference an image
  10. Create a geodatabase
  11. Define spatial reference
  12. Create a feature class
  13. Create features by heads-up digitizing


Lecture - GIS Fundamentals

  • remotely-sensed
  • large area coverage
  • extended spectral range
  • geometric accuracy
  • permanent record
  • wavelength
  • electromagnetic energy
  • electromagnetic spectrum
  • passive systems
  • active systems
  • image scale
  • extent
  • image resolution
  • photogrammetry
  • emulsions
  • developer
  • stop bath
  • fixer
  • panchromatic
  • true color
  • infrared films
  • contras
  • diaphragm
  • shutter
  • optical axis
  • focal plane data strip
  • large-format
  • small-format
  • fiducials
  • motorized film advancement
  • image motion compensation
  • charge coupled device (CCD)
  • cartometric or orthographic
  • perspective view
  • terrain distortion
  • tilt distortion
  • relief displacement
  • atmospheric distortion
  • stereopair
  • stereo photographic coverage
  • endlap
  • sidelap
  • parallax
  • stereomodel
  • geometic correction
  • orthophotographs
  • softcopy
  • minimum mapping unit (mmu)

Lab - Georeferencing, creating and editing features

  • georeference
  • world-file
  • control points
  • links
  • target data
  • transformation
  • geodatabase
  • attribute
  • feature class
  • heads-up digitize


GIS Fundamentals - Chapter 6 - Aerial and Satellite Images - PowerPoint Supplement - refresh page if download does not begin


Georeferencing, creating and editing data

Thursday, September 20, 2007

Module 5 - Data Sources and Data Entry


Spatial data entry and editing can be the most expensive, time
consuming and important of all GIS operations. Take the time and care to do this part well because the data is the foundation for everything you will do with your GIS.

  1. Discuss hard copy and digital forms of spatial data
  2. Describe how spatial data are commonly entered to the computer
  3. Describe several different types of maps
  4. Discuss small scale versus large scale
  5. Why are data generalized and what are some typical ways these generalizations occur?
  6. Describe the digitizing: coordinate capture process
  7. Describe coordinate surveying
  8. Discuss metadata and it's importance to GIS

Lecture - GIS Fundamentals

  • hard copy
  • digital
  • cartometric
  • insets
  • map scale
  • graticule
  • grids
  • feature maps
  • choropleth maps
  • dot-density maps
  • isopleth maps (contour maps)
  • large scale
  • small scale
  • map generalization
  • feature generalization
    • simplified
    • omitted
    • fused
    • displaced
    • exaggerated
  • registration
  • digitizing
  • manual digitizing
    • on-screen digitizing (heads-up)
    • hardcopy digitizing
  • minimum distance
  • undershoots / overshoots
  • node / line snapping
  • snap tolerance / snap distance
  • spline
  • scan digitizing
  • editing
  • rubbersheeting
  • coordinate surveying
  • coordinate geometry
  • bearings
  • coordinate transformation
  • control points
  • resampling
  • metadata

Lab - Getting to Know ArcGIS

  • editor toolbar
  • sketch tool
  • edit task
  • target layer
  • snapping environment
  • auto complete polygon
  • map topology

GIS Fundamentals - Chapter 4 - Data Sources and Data Entry - Get the PowerPoint supplement here


Getting to Know ArcGIS : Chapter 15 - Creating Features
Getting to Know ArcGIS : Chapter 16 - Editing Features and Attributes

*** Check the errata for the book on these chapters. There are updates.


Check out these data sources ...

Module 4 - Digital Data


There is an abundance of GIS data available in digital format for many parts of the world. Much of this data has been created by local, state, and federal governments to support their basic public services such as safety, health, transportation, water and energy. Spatial data is also required for disaster planning and management, national defense and more.

  1. Discuss why many state and local governments create digital GIS data
  2. List the 3 general forms digital data are typically provided
  3. Discuss why it is so difficult to create data sets at a global scale
  4. List 2 datasets that are available at a global scale
  5. Describe the primary goal of the Global Spatial Dataset Infrastructure (GSDI)
  6. Define the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI)
  7. Discribe Digital Raster Graphics (DRG's)
  8. Describe Digital Line Graphs (DLG's)
  9. Describe Digital Elevation Models (DEM's)
  10. Describe National Elevation Dataset (NED)
  11. Describe Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles (DOQ's)
  12. Discuss the primary types of hydrologic data available
  13. Describe the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI)
  14. Describe the types of digital soils data available in the United States
  15. Describe the types of flood plain data available.
  16. Describe the digital census data available today
  17. Describe the National Land Cover Data (NLCD)

  • Digital data
  • NASA
  • Global Spatial Dataset Infrastructure (GSDI)
  • Global Map
  • United States Geological Survey (USGS)
  • National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI)
  • National Geospatial Data Clearinghouse (NGDC)
  • USGS National Map
  • Digital Raster Graphics (DRG's)
  • Digital Line Graphs (DLG's)
  • Digital Elevation Models (DEM's)
  • National Elevation Data (NED)
  • Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)
  • Hydrography
  • Hypsography
  • Tiles 1:24000 USGS quadrangle data
  • Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles (DOQ's)
  • National Hydrologic Dataset (NHD)
  • Minimum Mapping Unit (MMU)
  • National Resource Conservation Service (NRCS)
  • National Soil Geography (NATSGO)
  • State Soil Geographic (STATSGO)
  • Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO)
  • United States Census Bureau
  • Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER)
  • National Land Cover Data (NLCD)


GIS Fundamentals - Chapter 7 - Digital Data - Get the PowerPoint supplement here.


  • Complete the 2 exercises from Mastering ArcGIS. See handouts from class.

Thursday, September 6, 2007

Module 3 - Geodesy, Map Projections, and Coordinate Systems


Test next week - Friday September 14th, 2007. Chapters 1 - 3 Paul Bolstad and anything else we've discussed and covered.


Another fundamental concept that effects everything we do is that the earth is round ( or close to it ...) and maps are usually flat. This means we have to make a mathematically transformation of every point on the hypothetical earth to the flat map. This is called a map projection. We will cover this and other related topics this week.

  1. Define geodesy
  2. Define map projection
  3. Describe some of the early measurements of the earth's shape and size.
  4. Describe why a map projection is important ot cartography
  5. List commonly used map projections
  6. Describe some ways the early the circumference of the earth has been estimated
  7. Explain what a datum is used for
  8. Describe geographic coordinates
  9. List the 3 comon projection surfaces
  10. Describe the Universal Transverse Mercator
  11. Describe the State Plane Coordinate system

Lecture - GIS Fundamentals

  • geodesy
  • map projection
  • Erathosthenes
  • zenith angle
  • ellipsoid
  • spheroid
  • geoid
  • latitude
  • longitude
  • magnetic north
  • geographic north
  • datum
  • datum adjustment
  • developable surface
  • great circle
  • standard parallels
  • datum transformation

Lab - Getting to Know ArcGIS

  • Spatial Reference
  • Project on the fly
  • geographic coordinate system
  • projected coordinate system
  • defining a projection

ESRI 'live' Training Seminar - *** this seminar was recorded at an earlier date ***

Working with Map Projections and Coordinate Systems in ArcGIS


For next week lecture and class - GIS Fundamentals - Chapter 4 - Data Sources and Entry


Chapter 3 - PowerPoint - press F5 to refresh if the file does not download


Lab: Getting to Know ArcGIS

  • Chapter 13 - Projecting Data in ArcMap